FIDE Laws of Chess cover over-the-board play.
The Laws of Chess have two parts: 1. Basic Rules of Play and 2.
The English text is the authentic version of the Laws of Chess
(which was adopted at the 84th FIDE Congress at Tallinn
(Estonia) coming into force on 1 July 2014.
In these Laws the words ‘he’, ‘him’, and ‘his’ shall be
considered to include
‘she’ and ‘her’.
The Laws of Chess cannot cover all possible situations that may
arise during a game, nor can they regulate all administrative
questions. Where cases are not precisely regulated by an Article
of the Laws, it should be possible to reach a correct decision
by studying analogous situations which are regulated in the
Laws. The Laws assume that arbiters have the necessary
competence, sound judgement and absolute objectivity. Too
detailed a rule might deprive the arbiter of his freedom of
judgement and thus prevent him from finding a solution to a
problem dictated by fairness, logic and special factors. FIDE
appeals to all chess players and federations to accept this
A necessary condition for a game to be rated by FIDE is that it
shall be played according to the FIDE Laws of Chess.
It is recommended that competitive games not rated by FIDE be
played according to the FIDE Laws of Chess.
Member federations may ask FIDE to give a ruling on matters
relating to the Laws of Chess.
BASIC RULES OF PLAY
Article 1: The nature and objectives of the game of
The game of chess is played between two opponents who move their
pieces on a square board called a ‘chessboard’. The player with
the light-coloured pieces (White) makes the first move, then the
players move alternately, with the player with the dark-coloured
pieces (Black) making the next move. A player is said to ‘have
the move’ when his opponent’s move has been ‘made’.
The objective of each player is to place the opponent’s king
‘under attack’ in such a way that the opponent has no legal
move. The player who achieves this goal is said to have
‘checkmated’ the opponent’s king and to have won the game.
Leaving one’s own king under attack, exposing one’s own king to
attack and also ’capturing’ the opponent’s king are not allowed.
The opponent whose king has been checkmated has lost the game.
If the position is such that neither player can possibly
checkmate the opponent’s king, the game is drawn (see Article
Article 2: The initial position of the pieces on the
The chessboard is composed of an 8 x 8 grid of 64 equal squares
alternately light (the ‘white’ squares) and dark (the ‘black’
The chessboard is placed between the players in such a way that
the near corner square to the right of the player is white.
At the beginning of the game White has 16 light-coloured pieces
(the ‘white’ pieces); Black has 16 dark-coloured pieces (the
These pieces are as follows:
A white king, usually indicated by the symbol
A white queen, usually indicated by the symbol
Two white rooks, usually indicated by the symbol
Two white bishops, usually indicated by the symbol
Two white knights, usually indicated by the symbol
Eight white pawns, usually indicated by the symbol
A black king, usually indicated by the symbol
A black queen, usually indicated by the symbol
Two black rooks, usually indicated by the symbol
Two black bishops, usually indicated by the symbol
Two black knights, usually indicated by the symbol
Eight black pawns, usually indicated by the symbol
p Q K B
The initial position of the pieces on the chessboard is as
The eight vertical columns of squares are called ‘files’. The
eight horizontal rows of squares are called ‘ranks’. A straight
line of squares of the same colour, running from one edge of the
board to an adjacent edge, is called a ‘diagonal’.
Article 3: The moves of the pieces
It is not permitted to move a piece to a square occupied by a
piece of the same colour. If a piece moves to a square occupied
by an opponent’s piece the latter is captured and removed from
the chessboard as part of the same move. A piece is said to
attack an opponent’s piece if the piece could make a capture on
that square according to Articles 3.2 to 3.8.
A piece is considered to attack a square even if this piece is
constrained from moving to that square because it would then
leave or place the king of its own colour under attack.
The bishop may move to any square along a diagonal on which it
The rook may move to any square along the file or the rank on
which it stands.
The queen may move to any square along the file, the rank or a
diagonal on which it stands.
When making these moves, the bishop, rook or queen may not move
over any intervening pieces.
The knight may move to one of the squares nearest to that on
which it stands but not on the same rank, file or diagonal.
- The pawn may move forward to the square
immediately in front of it on the same file, provided that
this square is unoccupied, or
- on its first move the pawn may move as in 3.7.a or
alternatively it may advance two squares along the same
file, provided that both squares are unoccupied, or
- the pawn may move to a square occupied by an opponent’s
piece diagonally in front of it on an adjacent file,
capturing that piece.
- A pawn occupying a square on the same rank as and on an
adjacent file to an opponent’s pawn which has just advanced
two squares in one move from its original square may capture
this opponent’s pawn as though the latter had been moved
only one square. This capture is only legal on the move
following this advance and is called an ‘en passant’
- When a player, having the move, plays a pawn to the rank
furthest from its starting position, he must exchange that
pawn as part of the same move for a new queen, rook, bishop
or knight of the same colour on the intended square of
This is called the square of ‘promotion’. The player's
choice is not restricted to pieces that have been captured
previously. This exchange of a pawn for another piece is
called promotion, and the effect of the new piece is
There are two different ways of moving the king:
- by moving to an adjoining square
- by ‘castling’. This is a move of the king and either
rook of the same colour along the player’s first rank,
counting as a single move of the king and executed as
follows: the king is transferred from its original square
two squares towards the rook on its original square, then
that rook is transferred to the square the king has just
Before white kingside castling
After white kingside castling
Before black queenside castling
After black queenside castling
Before white queenside castling
After white queenside castling
Before black kingside castling
After black kingside castling
- The right to castle has been lost:
- if the king has already moved, or
- with a rook that has already moved.
- Castling is prevented temporarily:
- if the square on which the king stands, or the
square which it must cross, or the square which it
is to occupy, is attacked by one or more of the
opponent's pieces, or
- if there is any piece between the king and the
rook with which castling is to be effected.
The king is said to be 'in check' if it is attacked by one or
more of the opponent's pieces, even if such pieces are
constrained from moving to the square occupied by the king
because they would then leave or place their own king in check.
No piece can be moved that will either expose the king of the
same colour to check or leave that king in check.
- A move is legal when all the relevant requirements of
Articles 3.1 – 3.9 have been fulfilled.
- A move is illegal when it fails to meet the relevant
requirements of Articles 3.1 – 3.9
- A position is illegal when it cannot have been reached
by any series of legal moves.
Article 4: The act of moving the pieces
Each move must be made with one hand only.
Provided that he first expresses his intention (for example by
saying “j’adoube” or “I adjust”), only the player having the
move may adjust one or more pieces on their squares.
Except as providedin Article 4.2, if the player having the move
touches on the chessboard, with
the intention of moving or capturing:
- one or more of his own pieces, he must move the first
piece touched that can be moved
- one or more of his opponent’s pieces, he must capture
the first piece touched that can be captured
- one piece of each colour, he must capture the opponent’s
piece with his piece or, if this is illegal, move or capture
the first piece touched that can be moved or captured. If it
is unclear whether the player’s own piece or his opponent’s
was touched first, the player’s own piece shall be
considered to have been touched before his opponent’s.
If a player having the move:
- touches his king and a rook he must castle on that side
if it is legal to do so
- deliberately touches a rook and then his king he is not
allowed to castle on that side on that move and the
situation shall be governed by Article 4.3.a
- intending to castle, touches the king and then a rook,
but castling with this rook is illegal, the player must make
another legal move with his king (which may include castling
with the other rook). If the king has no legal move, the
player is free to make any legal move.
- promotes a pawn, the choice of the piece is finalised
when the piece has touched the square of promotion.
If none of the pieces touched in accordance with Article 4.3 or
Article 4.4 can be moved or captured, the player may make any
The act of promotion may be performed in various ways:
- the pawn does not have to be placed on the square of
- removing the pawn and putting the new piece on the
square of promotion may occur in any order.
If an opponent’s piece stands on the square of promotion, it
must be captured.
When, as a legal move or part of a legal move, a piece has been
released on a square, it cannot be moved to another square on
this move. The move is considered to have been made in the case
- a capture, when the captured piece has been removed from
the chessboard and the player, having placed his own piece
on its new square, has released this capturing piece from
- castling, when the player's hand has released the rook
on the square previously crossed by the king. When the
player has released the king from his hand, the move is not
yet made, but the player no longer has the right to make any
move other than castling on that side, if this is legal. If
castling on this side is illegal, the player must make
another legal move with his king (which may include castling
with the other rook). If the king has no legal move, the
player is free to make any legal move.
- promotion, when the player's hand has released the new
piece on the square of promotion and the pawn has been
removed from the board.
A player forfeits his right to claim against his opponent’s
violation of Articles 4.1 – 4.7 once the player touches a piece
with the intention of moving or capturing it.
If a player is unable to move the pieces, an assistant, who
shall be acceptable to the arbiter, may be provided by the
player to perform this operation.
Article 5: The completion of the game
- The game is won by the player who has checkmated his
opponent’s king. This immediately ends the game, provided
that the move producing the checkmate position was in
accordance with Article 3 and Articles 4.2 – 4.7.
- The game is won by the player whose opponent declares he
resigns. This immediately ends the game.
- The game is drawn when the player to move has no legal
move and his king is not in check. The game is said to end
in ‘stalemate’. This immediately ends the game, provided
that the move producing the stalemate position was in
accordance with Article 3 and Articles 4.2 – 4.7.
- The game is drawn when a position has arisen in which
neither player can checkmate the opponent’s king with any
series of legal moves. The game is said to end in a ‘dead
position’. This immediately ends the game, provided that the
move producing the position was in accordance with Article 3
and Articles 4.2 – 4.7.
- The game is drawn upon agreement between the two players
during the game. This immediately ends the game.
- The game may be drawn if an identical position is about
to appear or has appeared on the chessboard at least three
times (see Article 9.2).
- The game may be drawn if each player has made at least
the last 50 moves without the movement of any pawn and
without any capture (see Article 9.3).
Article 6: The chessclock
‘Chessclock’ means a clock with two time displays, connected to
each other in such a way that only one of them can run at one
‘Clock’ in the Laws of Chess means one of the two time displays.
Each time display has a ‘flag’.
‘Flag-fall’ means the expiration of the allotted time for a
- During the game each player, having made his move on the
chessboard, shall stop his own clock and start his
opponent’s clock (that is to say, he shall press his clock).
This “completes” the move. A move is also completed if:
A player must be allowed to stop his clock after making his
move, even after the opponent has made his next move. The
time between making the move on the chessboard and pressing
the clock is regarded as part of the time allotted to the
- the move ends the game (see Articles 5.1.a, 5.2.a,
5.2.b, 5.2.c, 9.6a, 9.6b and 9.7), or
- the player has made his next move, in case his
previous move was not completed.
- A player must press his clock with the same hand with
which he made his move. It is forbidden for a player to keep
his finger on the clock or to ‘hover’ over it.
- The players must handle the chessclock properly. It is
forbidden to press it forcibly, to pick it up, to press the
clock before moving or to knock it over. Improper clock
handling shall be penalised in accordance with Article 12.9.
- Only the player whose clock is running is allowed to
adjust the pieces.
- If a player is unable to use the clock, an assistant,
who must be acceptable to the arbiter, may be provided by
the player to perform this operation. His clock shall be
adjusted by the arbiter in an equitable way. This adjustment
of the clock shall not apply to the clock of a player with a
- When using a chessclock, each player must complete a
minimum number of moves or all moves in an allotted period
of time and/or may be allocated an additional amount of time
with each move. All these must be specified in advance.
- The time saved by a player during one period is added to
his time available for the next period, where applicable.
In the time-delay mode both players receive an allotted
‘main thinking time’. Each player also receives a ‘fixed
extra time’ with every move. The countdown of the main
thinking time only commences after the fixed extra time has
expired. Provided the player presses his clock before the
expiration of the fixed extra time, the main thinking time
does not change, irrespective of the proportion of the fixed
extra time used.
Immediately after a flag falls, the requirements of Article 6.3
a. must be checked.
Before the start of the game the arbiter shall decide where the
chessclock is placed.
At the time determined for the start of the game White’s clock
- The rules of a competition shall specify in advance a
default time. Any player who arrives at the chessboard after
the default time shall lose the game unless the arbiter
- If the rules of a competition specify that the default
time is not zero and if neither player is present initially,
White shall lose all the time that elapses until he arrives,
unless the rules of the competition specify or the arbiter
A flag is considered to have fallen when the arbiter observes
the fact or when either player has made a valid claim to that
Except where one of Articles 5.1.a, 5.1.b, 5.2.a, 5.2.b, 5.2.c
applies, if a player does not complete the prescribed number of
moves in the allotted time, the game is lost by that player.
However, the game is drawn if the position is such that the
opponent cannot checkmate the player’s king by any possible
series of legal moves.
- Every indication given by the chessclock is considered
to be conclusive in the absence of any evident defect. A
chessclock with an evident defect shall be replaced by the
arbiter, who shall use his best judgement when determining
the times to be shown on the replacement chessclock.
- If during a game it is found that the setting of either
or both clocks is incorrect, either player or the arbiter
shall stop the chessclock immediately. The arbiter shall
install the correct setting and adjust the times and
move-counter, if necessary. He shall use his best judgement
when determining the clock settings.
If both flags have fallen and it is impossible to establish
which flag fell first then:
- the game shall continue if this occurs in any period of
the game except the last period.
- the game is drawn if this occurs in the period of a game
in which all remaining moves must be completed.
- If the game needs to be interrupted, the arbiter shall
stop the chessclock.
- A player may stop the chessclock only in order to seek
the arbiter’s assistance, for example when promotion has
taken place and the piece required is not available.
- The arbiter shall decide when the game restarts.
- If a player stops the chessclock in order to seek the
arbiter’s assistance, the arbiter shall determine whether
the player had any valid reason for doing so. If the player
had no valid reason for stopping the chessclock, the player
shall be penalised in accordance with Article 12.9.
Screens, monitors, or demonstration boards showing the current
position on the chessboard, the moves and the number of moves
made/completed, and clocks which also show the number of moves,
are allowed in the playing hall. However, the player may not
make a claim relying only on information shown in this manner.
Article 7: Irregularities
If an irregularity occurs and the pieces have to be restored to
a previous position, the arbiter shall use his best judgement to
determine the times to be shown on the chessclock. This includes
the right not to change the clock times. He shall also, if
necessary, adjust the clock’s move-counter.
- If during agame it is found that the initial position of
the pieces was incorrect, the game shall be cancelled and a
new game shall be played.
- If during a game it is found that the chessboard has
been placed contrary to Article 2.1, the game shall continue
but the position reached must be transferred to a correctly
If a game has begun with colours reversed then it shall
continue, unless the arbiter rules otherwise.
If a player displaces one or more pieces, he shall re-establish
the correct position in his own time. If necessary, either the
player or his opponent shall stop the chessclock and ask for the
arbiter’s assistance. The arbiter may penalise the player who
displaced the pieces.
- If during a game it is found that an illegal move has
been completed, the position immediately before the
irregularity shall be reinstated. If the position
immediately before the irregularity cannot be determined,
the game shall continue from the last identifiable position
prior to the irregularity. Articles 4.3 and 4.7 apply to the
move replacing the illegal move. The game shall then
continue from this reinstated position.
If the player has moved a pawn to the furthest distant rank,
pressed the clock, but not replaced the pawn with a new
piece, the move is illegal. The pawn shall be replaced by a
queen of the same colour as the pawn.
- After the action taken under Article 7.5.a, for the
first completed illegal move by a player the arbiter shall
give two minutes extra time to his opponent; for the second
completed illegal move by the same player the arbiter shall
declare the game lost by this player. However, the game is
drawn if the position is such that the opponent cannot
checkmate the player’s king by any possible series of legal
If, during a game, it is found that any piece has been displaced
from its correct square the position before the irregularity
shall be reinstated. If the position immediately before the
irregularity cannot be determined, the game shall continue from
the last identifiable position prior to the irregularity. The
game shall then continue from this reinstated position.
Article 8: The recording of the moves
- In the course of play each player is required to record
his own moves and those of his opponentin the correct
manner, move after move, as clearly and legibly as possible,
in the algebraic notation (Appendix C), on the ‘scoresheet’
prescribed for the competition. It is forbidden to write the
moves in advance, unless the player is claiming a draw
according to Article 9.2, or 9.3 or adjourning a game
according to Appendix E.1 a.
- The scoresheet shall be used only for recording the
moves, the times of the clocks, offers of a draw, matters
relating to a claim and other relevant data.
- A player may reply to his opponent’s move before
recording it, if he so wishes. He must record his previous
move before making another.
- Both players must record the offer of a draw on the
scoresheet with a symbol (=).
- If a player is unable to keep score, an assistant, who
must be acceptable to the arbiter, may be provided by the
player to write the moves. His clock shall be adjusted by
the arbiter in an equitable way. This adjustment of the
clock shall not apply to a player with a disability.
The scoresheet shall be visible to the arbiter throughout the
The scoresheets are the property of the organiser of the
If a player has less than five minutes left on his clock at some
stage in a period and does not have additional time of 30
seconds or more added with each move, then for the remainder of
the period he is not obliged to meet the requirements of Article
- If neither player keeps score under Article 8.4, the
arbiter or an assistant should try to be present and keep
score. In this case, immediately after a flag has fallenthe
arbiter shall stop the chessclock. Then both players shall
update their scoresheets, using the arbiter’s or the
- If only one player has not kept score under Article 8.4,
he must, as soon as either flag has fallen, update his
scoresheet completely before moving a piece on the
chessboard. Provided it is that player’s move, he may use
his opponent’s scoresheet, but must return it before making
- If no complete scoresheet is available, the players must
reconstruct the game on a second chessboard under the
control of the arbiter or an assistant. He shall first
record the actual game position, clock times, whose clock
was running and the number of moves made/completed, if this
information is available, before reconstruction takes place.
If the scoresheets cannot be brought up to date showing that a
player has overstepped the allotted time, the next move made
shall be considered as the first of the following time period,
unless there is evidence that more moves have been made or
At the conclusion of the game both players shall sign both
scoresheets, indicating the result of the game. Even if
incorrect, this result shall stand, unless the arbiter decides
Article 9: The drawn game
- The rules of a competition may specify that players
cannot agree to a draw, whether in less than a specified
number of moves or at all, without the consent of the
- However, if the rules of a competition allow a draw
agreement the following shall apply:
- A player wishing to offer a draw shall do so after
having made a move on the chessboard and before pressing
his clock. An offer at any other time during play is
still valid but Article 11.5 must be considered. No
conditions can be attached to the offer. In both cases
the offer cannot be withdrawn and remains valid until
the opponent accepts it, rejects it orally, rejects it
by touching a piece with the intention of moving or
capturing it, or the game is concluded in some other
- The offer of a draw shall be noted by each player on
his scoresheet with the symbol (=).
- A claim of a draw under Article 9.2 or 9.3 shall be
considered to be an offer of a draw.
The game is drawn, upon a correct claim by a player having the
move, when the same position for at least the third time (not
necessarily by a repetition of moves):
Positions areconsidered the same if and only if the same player
has the move, pieces of the same kind and colour occupy the same
squares and the possible moves of all the pieces of both players
are the same. Thus positions are not the same if:
- is about to appear, if he first writes his move, which
cannot be changed, on his scoresheet and declares to the
arbiter his intention to make this move, or
- has just appeared, and the player claiming the draw has
- at the start of the sequence a pawn could have been
captured en passant.
- a king or rook had castling rights, but forfeited these
after moving. The castling rights are lost only after the
king or rook is moved.
The game is drawn, upon a correct claim by a player having the
- he writes his move, which cannot be changed, on his
scoresheet and declares to the arbiter his intention to make
this move which will result in thelast50 moves by each
player having been made without the movement of any pawn and
without any capture, or
- the last 50 moves by each playerhave been completed
without the movement of any pawn and without any capture.
If the player touches a piece as in Article 4.3, he loses the
right to claim a draw under Article 9.2 or 9.3 on that move.
If a player claims a draw under Article 9.2 or 9.3, he or the
arbiter shall stop the chessclock (see Article 6.12a or 6.12b).
He is not allowed to withdraw his claim.
- If the claim is found to be correct, the game is
- If the claim is found to be incorrect, the arbiter shall
add two minutes to the opponent’s remaining thinking time.
Then the game shall continue. If the claim was based on an
intended move, this move must be made in accordance with
Articles 3 and 4.
If one or both of the following occur(s) then the game is drawn:
- the same position has appeared, as in 9.2b, for at least
five consecutive alternate moves by each player.
- any consecutive series of 75
moves have been completed by each player without the
movement of any pawn and without any capture. If the last
move resulted in checkmate, that shall take precedence.
The game is drawn when a position is reached from which a
checkmate cannot occur by any possible series of legal moves.
This immediately ends the game, provided that the move producing
this position was in accordance with Article 3 and Articles 4.2
Article 10: Points
Unless the rules of a competition specify otherwise, a player
who wins his game, or wins by forfeit, scores one point (1), a
player who loses his game, or forfeits, scores no points (0),
and a player who draws his game scores a half point (½).
Article 11: The conduct of the players
The players shall take no action that will bring the game of
chess into disrepute.
The ‘playing venue’ is defined as the ‘playing area’, rest
rooms, toilets, refreshment area, area set aside for smoking and
other places as designated by the arbiter.
The playing area is defined as the place where the games of a
competition are played.
Only with the permission of the arbiter can
- a player leave the playing venue.
- the player having the move be allowed to leave the
- A person who is neither a player nor arbiter be allowed
access to the playing area.
- During play the players are forbidden to use any notes,
sources of information or advice, or analyse any game on
- During play, a player is forbidden to have a mobile
phone and/or other electronic means of communication in the
playing venue. If it is evident that a player brought such a
device into the playing venue, he shall lose the game. The
opponent shall win.
The rules of a competition may specify a different, less
The arbiter may require the player to allow his clothes,
bags or other items to be inspected, in private. The arbiter
or a person authorised by the arbiter shall inspect the
player and shall be of the same gender as the player. If a
player refuses to cooperate with these obligations, the
arbiter shall take measures in accordance with Article 12.9.
- Smoking is permitted only in the section of the venue
designated by the arbiter.
Players who have finished their games shall be considered to be
It is forbidden to distract or annoy the opponent in any manner
whatsoever. This includes unreasonable claims, unreasonable
offers of a draw or the introduction of a source of noise into
the playing area.
Infraction of any part of Articles 11.1 – 11.5 shall lead to
penalties in accordance with Article 12.9.
Persistent refusal by a player to comply with the Laws of Chess
shall be penalised by loss of the game. The arbiter shall decide
the score of the opponent.
If both players are found guilty according to Article 11.7, the
game shall be declared lost by both players.
A player shall have the right to request from the arbiter an
explanation of particular points in the Laws of Chess.
Unless the rules of the competition specify otherwise, a player
may appeal against any decision of the arbiter, even if the
player has signed the scoresheet (see Article 8.7).
Article 12: The role of the Arbiter (see Preface)
The arbiter shall see that the Laws of Chess are strictly
The arbiter shall
- ensure fair play.
- act in the best interest of the competition.
- ensure that a good playing environment is maintained.
- ensure that the players are not disturbed.
- supervise the progress of the competition.
- take special measures in the interests of disabled
players and those who need medical attention.
The arbiter shall observe the games, especially when the players
are short of time, enforce decisions he has made, and impose
penalties on players where appropriate.
The arbiter may appoint assistants to observe games, for example
when several players are short of time.
The arbiter may award either or both players additional time in
the event of external disturbance of the game.
The arbiter must not intervene in a game except in cases
described by the Laws of Chess. He shall not indicate the number
of moves completed, except in applying Article 8.5 when at least
one flag has fallen. The arbiter shall refrain from informing a
player that his opponent has completed a move or that the player
has not pressed his clock.
If someone observes an irregularity, he may inform only the
arbiter. Players in other games are not to speak about or
otherwise interfere in a game. Spectators are not allowed to
interfere in a game. The arbiter may expel offenders from the
Unless authorised by the arbiter, it is forbidden for anybody to
use a mobile phone or any kind of communication device in the
playing venue or any contiguous area designated by the arbiter.
Options available to the arbiter concerning penalties:
- increasing the remaining time of the opponent
- reducing the remaining time of the offending player
- increasing the points scored in the game by the opponent
to the maximum available for that game
- reducing the points scored in the game by the offending
- declaring the game to be lost by the offending player
(the arbiter shall also decide the opponent’s score)
- a fine announced in advance
- expulsion from the competition.
Appendix A. Rapidplay
A ‘Rapidplay’ game is one where either all the moves must be
completed in a fixed time of more than 10 minutes but less than
60 minutes for each player; or the time allotted plus 60 times
any increment is of more than 10 minutes but less than 60
minutes for each player.
Players do not need to record the moves.
The Competition Rules shall apply if
- one arbiter supervises at most three games and
- each game is recorded by the arbiter or his assistant
and, if possible, by electronic means.
Otherwise the following apply:
- From the initial position, once ten moves have been
completed by each player,
- no change can be made to the clock setting, unless
the schedule of the event would be adversely affected.
- no claim can be made regarding incorrect set-up or
orientation of the chessboard. In case of incorrect king
placement, castling is not allowed. In case of incorrect
rook placement, castling with this rook is not allowed.
- An illegal move is completed once the player has pressed
his clock. If the arbiter observes this he shall declare the
game lost by the player, provided the opponent has not made
his next move. If the arbiter does not intervene, the
opponent is entitled to claim a win, provided the opponent
has not made his next move. However, the game is drawn if
the position is such that the opponent cannot checkmate the
player’s king by any possible series of legal moves. If the
opponent does not claim and the arbiter does not intervene,
the illegal move shall stand and the game shall continue.
Once the opponent has made his next move, an illegal move
cannot be corrected unless this is agreed by the players
without intervention of the arbiter.
- To claim a win on time, the claimant must stop the
chessclock and notify the arbiter. For the claim to be
successful, the claimant must have time remaining on his own
clock after the chessclock has been stopped. However, the
game is drawn if the position is such that the claimant
cannot checkmate the player’s king by any possible series of
- If the arbiter observes both kings are in check, or a
pawn on the rank furthest from its starting position, he
shall wait until the next move is completed. Then, if the
illegal position is still on the board, he shall declare the
The Rules for a competition shall specify whether Article A.3 or
Article A.4 shall apply for the entire event.
Appendix B. Blitz
A ‘blitz’ game’ is one where all the moves must be completed in
a fixed time of 10 minutes or less for each player; or the
allotted time plus 60 times any increment is 10 minutes or less.
The penalties mentioned in Articles 7 and 9 of the Competition
Rules shall be one minute instead of two minutes.
The Competition Rules shall apply if
- one arbiter supervises one game and
- each game is recorded by the arbiter or his assistant
and, if possible, by electronic means.
Otherwise, play shall be governed by the Rapidplay Laws as in
The Rules for a competition shall specify whether Article B.3 or
Article.B.4 shall apply for the entire event.
Appendix C. Algebraic notation
FIDE recognises for its own tournaments and matches only one
system of notation, the Algebraic System, and recommends the use
of this uniform chess notation also for chess literature and
periodicals. Scoresheets using a notation system other than
algebraic may not be used as evidence in cases where normally
the scoresheet of a player is used for that purpose. An arbiter
who observes that a player is using a notation system other than
the algebraic should warn the player of this requirement.
Description of the Algebraic System
In this description, ‘piece’ means a piece other than a pawn.
Each piece is indicated by an abbreviation. In the English
language it is the first letter, a capital letter, of its name.
Example: K=king, Q=queen, R=rook, B=bishop, N=knight. (N is used
for a knight, in order to avoid ambiguity.)
For the abbreviation of the name of the pieces, each player is
free to use the name which is commonly used in his country.
Examples: F = fou (French for bishop), L = loper (Dutch for
bishop). In printed periodicals, the use of figurines
Pawns are not indicated by their first letter, but are
recognised by the absence of such a letter. Examples: the moves
are written e5, d4, a5, not pe5, Pd4, pa5.
The eight files (from left to right for White and from right to
left for Black) are indicated by the small letters, a, b, c, d,
e, f, g and h, respectively.
The eight ranks (from bottom to top for White and from top to
bottom for Black) are numbered 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8,
respectively. Consequently, in the initial position the white
pieces and pawns are placed on the first and second ranks; the
black pieces and pawns on the eighth and seventh ranks.
As a consequence of the previous rules, each of the sixty-four
squares is invariably indicated by a unique combination of a
letter and a number.
Each move of a piece is indicated by a) the abbreviation of the
name of the piece in question and b) the square of arrival.
There is no hyphen between a) and b). Examples: Be5, Nf3, Rd1.
In the case of pawns, only the square of arrival is indicated.
Examples: e5, d4, a5.
When a piece makes a capture, an x may be inserted between a)
the abbreviation of the name of the piece in question and b) the
square of arrival. Examples: Bxe5, Nxf3, Rxd1, see also C10.
When a pawn makes a capture, the file of departure must be
indicated, then an x may be inserted, then the square of
arrival. Examples: dxe5, gxf3, axb5. In the case of an ‘en
passant’ capture, ‘e.p.’ may be appended to the notation.
Example: exd6 e.p.
If two identical pieces can move to the same square, the piece
that is moved is indicated as follows:
- 1. If both pieces are on the same rank: by a) the
abbreviation of the name of the piece, b) the file of
departure, and c) the square of arrival.
- 2. If both pieces are on the same file: by a) the
abbreviation of the name of the piece, b) the rank of the
square of departure, and c) the square of arrival.
If the pieces are on different ranks and files, method 1 is
- There are two knights, on the squares g1 and e1, and one
of them moves to the square f3: either Ngf3 or Nef3, as the
case may be.
- There are two knights, on the squares g5 and g1, and one
of them moves to the square f3: either N5f3 or N1f3, as the
case may be.
- There are two knights, on the squares h2 and d4, and one
of them moves to the square f3: either Nhf3 or Ndf3, as the
case may be.
- If a capture takes place on the square f3, the notation
of the previous examples is still applicable, but an x may
be inserted: 1) either Ngxf3 or Nexf3, 2) either N5xf3 or
N1xf3, 3) either Nhxf3 or Ndxf3, as the case may be.
In the case of the promotion of a pawn, the actual pawn move is
indicated, followed immediately by the abbreviation of the new
piece. Examples: d8Q, exf8N, b1B, g1R.
The offer of a draw shall be marked as (=).
0-0 = castling with rook h1 or rook h8 (kingside castling)
0-0-0 = castling with rook a1 or rook a8 (queenside castling)
x = captures
+ = check
++ or # = checkmate
e.p. = captures ‘en passant’
The last four are optional.
1.e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nf6 3. d4 exd4 4. e5 Ne4 5. Qxd4 d5 6. exd6 e.p.
Nxd6 7. Bg5 Nc6 8. Qe3+ Be7 9. Nbd2 0-0 10. 0-0-0 Re8 11. Kb1
Or: 1. e4 e5 2. Nf3 Nf6 3. d4 ed4 4. e5 Ne4 5. Qd4 d5 6. ed6 Nd6
7. Bg5 Nc6 8. Qe3 Be7 9 Nbd2 0-0 10. 0-0-0 Re8 11. Kb1 (=)
Appendix D. Rules for play with blind and visually
The organiser, after consulting the arbiter, shall have the
power to adapt the following rules according to local
circumstances. In competitive chess between sighted and visually
disabled (legally blind) players either player may demand the
use of two boards, the sighted player using a normal board, the
using one specially constructed. This board
must meet the following requirements:
- measure at least 20 cm by 20 cm,
- have the black squares slightly raised,
- have a securing aperture in each square,
The requirements for the pieces are:
- all are provided with a peg that fits into the securing
aperture of the board,
- all are of Staunton design, the black pieces being
The following regulations shall govern play:
- The moves shall be announced clearly, repeated by the
opponent and executed on his chessboard. When promoting a
pawn, the player must announce which piece is chosen. To
make the announcement as clear as possible, the use of the
following names is suggested instead of the corresponding
A - Anna
B - Bella
C - Cesar
D - David
E - Eva
F - Felix
G - Gustav
H - Hector
Unless the arbiter decides otherwise, ranks from White to
Black shall be given the German numbers
1 - eins
2 - zwei
3 - drei
4 - vier
5 - fuenf
6 - sechs
7 - sieben
8 - acht
Castling is announced “Lange Rochade” (German for long
castling) and “Kurze Rochade” (German for short castling).
The pieces bear the names: Koenig, Dame, Turm, Laeufer,
- On the visually disabled player's board a piece shall be
considered ‘touched’ when it has been taken out of the
- A move shall be considered ‘made’ when:
Only then shall the opponent's clock be started.
- in the case of a capture, the captured piece has
been removed from the board of the player whose turn it
is to move
- a piece has been placed into a different securing
- the move has been announced.
- As far as points 2 and 3 are concerned, the normal rules
are valid for the sighted player.
- A specially constructed chessclock for the visually
disabled shall be admissible. It shall incorporate the
- a dial fitted with reinforced hands, with every five
minutes marked by one raised dot, and every 15 minutes
by two raised dots, and
- a flag which can be easily felt; care should be
taken that the flag is so arranged as to allow the
player to feel the minute hand during the last 5 minutes
of the full hour.
- optionally, a means of announcing audibly to the
visually disabled player the number of moves.
- The visually disabled player must keep score of the game
in Braille or longhand, or record the moves on a recording
- A slip of the tongue in the announcement of a move must
be corrected immediately and before the clock of the
opponent is started.
- If during a game different positions should arise on the
two boards, they must be corrected with the assistance of
the arbiter and by consulting both players' game scores. If
the two game scores correspond with each other, the player
who has written the correct move but made the wrong one must
adjust his position to correspond with the move on the game
scores. When the game scores are found to differ, the moves
shall be retraced to the point where the two scores agree,
and the arbiter shall readjust the clocks accordingly.
- The visually disabled player shall have the right to
make use of an assistant who shall have any or all of the
- making either player's move on the board of the
- announcing the moves of both players
- keeping the game score of the visually disabled
player and starting his opponent's clock (keeping point
3.c in mind)
- informing the visually disabled player, only at his
request, of the number of moves completed and the time
used up by both players
- claiming the game in cases where the time limit has
been exceeded and informing the arbiter when the sighted
player has touched one of his pieces
- carrying out the necessary formalities in cases
where the game is adjourned.
- If the visually disabled player does not make use of an
assistant, the sighted player may make use of one who shall
carry out the duties mentioned in points 9.a and 9.b.
Appendix E. Adjourned games
- If a game is not finished at the end of the time
prescribed for play, the arbiter shall require the player
having the move to ‘seal’ that move. The player must write
his move in unambiguous notation on his scoresheet, put his
scoresheet and that of his opponent in an envelope, seal the
envelope and only then stop the chessclock. Until he has
stopped the chessclock the player retains the right to
change his sealed move. If, after being told by the arbiter
to seal his move, the player makes a move on the chessboard
he must write that same move on his scoresheet as his sealed
- A player having the move who adjourns the game before
the end of the playing session shall be considered to have
sealed at the nominal time for the end of the session, and
his remaining time shall so be recorded.
The following shall be indicated upon the envelope:
- the names of the players,
- the position immediately before the sealed move,
- the time used by each player,
- the name of the player who has sealed the move,
- the number of the sealed move,
- the offer of a draw, if the proposal is current,
- the date, time and venue of resumption of play.
The arbiter shallcheck the accuracy of the information on the
envelope and is responsible for its safekeeping.
If a player proposes a draw after his opponent has sealed his
move, the offer is valid until the opponent has accepted it or
rejected it as in Article 9.1.
Before the game is to be resumed, the position immediately
before the sealed move shall be set up on the chessboard, and
the times used by each player when the game was adjourned shall
be indicated on the clocks.
If prior to the resumption the game is agreed drawn, or if one
of the players notifies the arbiter that he resigns, the game is
The envelope shall be opened only when the player who must reply
to the sealed move is present.
Except in the cases mentioned in Articles 5, 6.9, 9.6 and 9.7,
the game is lost by a player whose recording of his sealed move:
- is ambiguous, or
- is recorded in such a way that its true significance is
impossible to establish, or
- is illegal.
If, at the agreed resumption time:
- the player having to reply to the sealed move is
present, the envelope is opened, the sealed move is made on
the chessboard and his clock is started.
- the player having to reply to the sealed move is not
present, his clock shall be started; on his arrival, he may
stop his clock and summon the arbiter; the envelope is then
opened and the sealed move is made on the chessboard; his
clock is then restarted.
- the player who sealed the move is not present, his
opponent has the right to record his reply on the
scoresheet, seal his scoresheet in a fresh envelope, stop
his clock and start the absent player’s clock instead of
making his reply in the normal manner; if so, the envelope
shall be handed to the arbiter for safekeeping and opened on
the absent player’s arrival.
Any player who arrives at the chessboard after the default time
shall lose the game unless the arbiter decides otherwise.
However, if the sealed move resulted in the conclusion of the
game, that conclusion shall still apply.
If the rules of a competition specify that the default time is
not zero, the following shall apply: If neither player is
present initially, the player who has to reply to the sealed
move shall lose all the time that elapses until he arrives,
unless the rules of the competition specify or the arbiter
- If the envelope containing the sealed move is missing,
the game shall continue from the adjourned position, with
the clock times recorded at the time of adjournment. If the
time used by each player cannot be re-established, the
arbiter shall set the clocks. The player who sealed the move
shall make the move he states he sealed on the chessboard.
- If it is impossible to re-establish the position, the
game shall be annulled and a new game shall be played.
If, upon resumption of the game, either player points out before
making his first move that the time used has been incorrectly
indicated on either clock, the error must be corrected. If the
error is not then established the game shall continue without
correction unless the arbiter decides otherwise.
The duration of each resumption session shall be controlled by
the arbiter’s timepiece. The starting time shall be announced in
Appendix F. Chess960 Rules
Before a Chess960 game a starting position is randomly set up,
subject to certain rules. After this, the game is played in the
same way as standard chess. In particular, pieces and pawns have
their normal moves, and each player's objective is to checkmate
the opponent's king.
The starting position for Chess960 must meet certain rules.
White pawns are placed on the second rank as in regular chess.
All remaining white pieces are placed randomly on the first
rank, but with the following restrictions:
- the king is placed somewhere between the two rooks, and
- the bishops are placed on opposite-coloured squares, and
- the black pieces are placed opposite the white pieces.
The starting position can be generated before the game either by
a computer program or using dice, coin, cards, etc.
Chess960 castling rules
- Chess960 allows each player to castle once per game, a
move by potentially both the king and rook in a single move.
However, a few interpretations of standard chess rules are
needed for castling, because the standard rules presume
initial locations of the rook and king that are often not
applicable in Chess960.
- How to castle
In Chess960, depending on the pre-castling position of
the castling king and rook, the castling manoeuvre is
performed by one of these four methods:
- double-move castling: by making a move with the king
and a move with the rook, or
- transposition castling: by transposing the position
of the king and the rook, or
- king-move-only castling: by making only a move with
the king, or
- rook-move-only castling: by making only a move with
- When castling on a physical board with a human player,
it is recommended that the king be moved outside the playing
surface next to his final position, the rook then be moved
from its starting position to its final position, and then
the king be placed on his final square.
- After castling, the rook and king's final positions
should be exactly the same positions as they would be in
Thus, after c-side castling (notated as 0-0-0 and known as
queen-side castling in orthodox chess), the king is on the
c-square (c1 for white and c8 for black) and the rook is on the
d-square (d1 for white and d8 for black). After g-side castling
(notated as 0-0 and known as king-side castling in orthodox
chess), the king is on the g-square (g1 for white and g8 for
black) and the rook is on the f-square (f1 for white and f8 for
- To avoid any misunderstanding, it may be useful to state
"I am about to castle" before castling.
- In some starting positions, the king or rook (but not
both) does not move during castling.
- In some starting positions, castling can take place as
early as the first move.
- All the squares between the king's initial and final
squares (including the final square) and all the squares
between the rook's initial and final squares (including the
final square) must be vacant except for the king and
- In some starting positions, some squares can stay filled
during castling that would have to be vacant in standard
chess. For example, after c-side castling 0-0-0, it is
possible to have a, b, and/or e still filled, and after
g-side castling (0-0), it is possible to have e and/or h
Appendix G. Quickplay Finishes
A ‘quickplay finish’ is the phase of a game when all the
remaining moves must be completed in a finite time.
Before the start of an event it shall be announced whether this
Appendix shall apply or not.
This Appendix shall only apply to standard play and rapidplay
games without increment and not to blitz games.
If the player having the move has less than two minutes left on
his clock, he may request that a time delay or cumulative time
of an extra five seconds be introduced for both players, if
possible. This constitutes the offer of a draw. If refused, and
the arbiter agrees to the request, the clocks shall then be set
with the extra time; the opponent shall be awarded two extra
minutes and the game shall continue.
If Article G.4 does not apply and the player having the move has
less than two minutes left on his clock, he may claim a draw
before his flag falls. He shall summon the arbiter and may stop
the chessclock (see Article 6.12 b). He may claim on the basis
that his opponent cannot win by normal means, and/or that his
opponent has been making no effort to win by normal means
- If the arbiter agrees that the opponent cannot win by
normal means, or that the opponent has been making no effort
to win the game by normal means, he shall declare the game
drawn. Otherwise he shall postpone his decision or reject
- If the arbiter postpones his decision, the opponent may
be awarded two extra minutes and the game shall continue, if
possible, in the presence of an arbiter. The arbiter shall
declare the final result later in the game or as soon as
possible after the flag of either player has fallen. He
shall declare the game drawn if he agrees that the opponent
of the player whose flag has fallen cannot win by normal
means, or that he was not making sufficient attempts to win
by normal means.
- If the arbiter has rejected the claim, the opponent
shall be awarded two extra minutes.
The following shall apply when the competition is not supervised
by an arbiter:
- A player may claim a draw when he has less than two
minutes left on his clock and before his flag falls. This
concludes the game.
He may claim on the basis:
In (1) the player must write down the final position and his
opponent must verify it.
- that his opponent cannot win by normal means, and/or
- that his opponent has been making no effort to win
by normal means.
In (2) the player must write down the final position and
submit an up-to-date scoresheet. The opponent shall verify
both the scoresheet and the final position.
- The claim shall be referred to the designated arbiter.
Glossary of terms in the Laws of Chess
The number after the term refers to the first time it appears in
Instead of playing the game in one session it is temporarily
halted and then continued at a later time.
algebraic notation: 8.1.
Recording the moves using a-h and 1-8 on the 8x8 board.
Where one or more players make moves on a board to try to
determine what is the best continuation.
Normally a player has the right to appeal against a decision of
the arbiter or organiser.
The person(s) responsible for ensuring that the rules of a
competition are followed.
arbiter’s discretion: There
are approximately 39 instances in the Laws where the arbiter
must use his judgement.
A person who may help the smooth running of the competition in
attack: 3.1. A
piece is said to attack an opponent’s piece if the player’s
piece can make a capture on that square.
black: 2.1. 1. There
are 16 dark-coloured pieces and 32 squares called black. Or 2. When
capitalised, this also refers to the player of the black pieces.
A game where each player’s thinking time is 10 minutes or less.
board: 2.4. Short
Bronstein mode: 6.3b.
See delay mode.
Where a piece is moved from its square to a square occupied by
an opponent’s piece, the latter is removed from the board. See
also 3.7d. In
A move of the king towards a rook. See the article. In notation
0-0 kingside castling, 0-0-0 queenside castling.
Where a king is attacked by one or more of the opponent’s
pieces. In notation +.
Where the king is attacked and cannot parry the threat. In
notation ++ or #.
The 8x8 grid as in 2.1.
A clock with two time displays connected to each other.
chess set: The
32 pieces on the chessboard.
variant of chess where the back-row pieces are set up in one of
the 960 distinguishable possible positions
The player may make a claim to the arbiter under various
One of the two time displays.
completed move: 6.2a.
Where a player has made his move and then pressed his clock.
contiguous area: 12.8.
An area touching but not actually part of the playing venue. For
example, the area set aside for spectators.
cumulative (Fischer) mode: Where
a player receives an extra amount of time (often 30 seconds)
prior to each move.
dead position: 5.2b.
Where neither player can mate the opponent’s king with any
series of legal moves.
default time: 6.7.
The specified time a player may be late without being forfeited.
delay (Bronstein) mode: 6.3b. Both
players receive an allotted ‘main thinking time’. Each player
also receives a ‘fixed extra time’ with every move. The
countdown of the main thinking time only commences after the
fixed extra time has expired. Provided the player presses his
clock before the expiration of the fixed extra time, the main
thinking time does not change, irrespective of the proportion of
the fixed extra time used.
demonstration board: 6.13.
A display of the position on the board where the pieces are
moved by hand.
diagonal: 2.4. A
of squares of the same colour, running from one edge of the
board to an adjacent edge.
A condition, such as a physical or mental handicap, that results
in partial or complete loss of a person's ability to perform
certain chess activities.
Where the game is concluded with neither side winning.
draw offer: 9.1.b.
Where a player may offer a draw to the opponent. This is
indicated on the scoresheet with the symbol (=).
en passant: 3.7d. See
that article for an explanation. In notation e.p.
exchange: 1. 3.7e. Where
a pawn is promoted. Or 2.Where
a player captures a piece of the same value as his own and this
piece is recaptured. Or 3. Where
one player has lost a rook and the other has lost a bishop or
A player is entitled to have a Law explained.
fair play: 12.2a.
Whether justice has been done has sometimes to be considered
when an arbiter finds that the Laws are inadequate.
A vertical column of eight squares on the chessboard.
Fischer mode: See
The device that displays when a time period has expired.
Where the allotted time of a player has expired.
forfeit: 4.8.1. To lose the right to make a
claim or move. Or 2. To lose a game because of an infringement
of the Laws.
I adjust: See
illegal: 3.10a. A
position or move that is impossible because of the Laws of
An amount of time (from 2 to 60 seconds) added from the start
before each move for the player. This can be in either delay or
To involve oneself in something that is happening in order to
affect the outcome.
Giving notice that the player wishes to adjust a piece, but does
not necessarily intend to move it.
kingside: 3.8a. The
vertical half of the board on which the king stands at the start
of the game.
legal move: See
A move is said to have been ‘made’ when the piece has been moved
to its new square, the hand has quit the piece, and the captured
piece, if any, has been removed from the board.
minor piece. Bishop
mobile phone: 11.3b. Cellphone.
An electronic display of the position on the board.
move: 1.1. 1. 40
moves in 90 minutes, refers to 40 moves by each player. Or 2. having
the move refers to the player’s right to play next. Or 3. White’s
best move refers to the single move by White.
A device on a chessclock which may be used to record the number
of times the clock has been pressed by each player.
normal means: G.5. Playing in a positive manner
to try to win; or, having a position such that there is a
realistic chance of winning the game other than just flag-fall.
The person responsible for the venue, dates, prize money,
invitations, format of the competition and so on.
over-the-board: Introduction. The
only this type of chess, not
internet, nor correspondence, and so on.
The arbiter may apply penalties as listed in 12.9
in ascending order of severity.
piece: 2. 1. One
of the 32 figurines on the board. Or 2. A
queen, rook, bishop or knight.
playing area: 11.2.
The place where the games of a competition are played.
playing venue: 11.2.
The only place to which the players have access during play.
Normally a player scores 1 point for a win, ½ point for a draw,
0 for a loss. An alternative is 3 for a win, 1 for a draw, 0 for
press the clock: 6.2a. The act of pushing the
button or lever on a chess clock which stops the player’s clock
and starts that of his opponent.
Where a pawn reaches the eighth rank and is replaced by a new
queen, rook, bishop or knight of the same colour.
a pawn, meaning to promote a pawn to a queen.
The vertical half of the board on which the queen stands at the
start of the game.
quickplay finish: G. The
last part of a game where a player must complete an unlimited
number of moves in a finite time.
A horizontal row of eight squares on the chessboard.
A game where each player’s thinking time is more than 10
minutes, but less than 60.
1. A player may claim a draw if the same position occurs three
times. 2. A game is drawn if the same position occurs five
Where a player gives up, rather than play on until mated.
rest rooms: 11.2. Toilets, also the room set
aside in World Championships where the players can relax.
Usually the result is 1-0, 0-1 or ½-½. In exceptional
circumstances both players may lose (Article 11.8), or one score
½ and the other 0. For unplayed games the scores are indicated
by +/- (White wins by forfeit), -/+ (Black wins by forfeit), -/-
(Both players lose by forfeit).
rules of the competition: 6.7a.
At various points in the Laws there are options. The competition
rules must state which have been chosen.
sealed move: E.
Where a game is adjourned the player seals his next move in an
A paper sheet with spaces for writing the moves. This can also
An electronic display of the position on the board.
spectators: 11.4. People
other than arbiters or players viewing the games. This
games have been concluded.
standard play: G3.
A game where each player’s thinking time is at least 60 minutes.
stalemate: 5.2a. Where
the player has no legal move and his king is not in check.
square of promotion: 3.7e.
The square a
pawn lands on when it reached the eighth rank.
supervise: 12.2e. Inspect
time control: 1.
The regulation about the time the player is allotted. For
example, 40 moves in 90 minutes, all the moves in 30 minutes,
plus 30 seconds cumulatively from move 1. Or 2.
A player is said ‘to have reached the time control’, if, for
example he has completed the 40 moves in less than 90 minutes.
time period: 8.6. A
part of the game where the players must complete a number of
moves or all the moves in a certain time.
touch move: 4.3.
If a player touches a piece with the intention of moving it, he
is obliged to move it.
The 8th rank is often thought as the highest area on a
chessboard. Thus each file is referred to as ‘vertical’.
white: 2.2. 1. There
are 16 light-coloured pieces and 32 squares called white. Or 2. When
capitalised, this also refers to the player of the white pieces.
zero tolerance: (6.7b). Where a player must
arrive at the chessboard before the start of the session.
50-move rule: 5.2e.
A player may claim a draw if the last 50 moves have been
completed by each player without the movement of any pawn and
without any capture.
75-move rule: 9.6b. The
game is drawn if the last 75 moves have been completed by each
player without the movement of any pawn and without any capture.